PERIOD IV (1615-1659)

1: THIRTY YEARS WAR (historical date: 1618-1648)
(duration: 6 turns)

1. Cannot occur if there is a protestant SPA or Habsburgs have already been dissociated with SPA. In that case mark off as played.
2. Cannot occur if Habsburgs is eliminated or if BOHEMIA is no longer owned by a member of HRE. In that case mark off as played.

FIRST TURN:

EVENTS PHASE:
1. Unless there is a Habsburg BOHEMIA Habsburgs automatically and even if already active declare war to the owner of BOHEMIA at the beginning of declarations of war phase. No allies can be called because of this declaration of war. The owner of BOHEMIA and the minor Palatinate offer immediate white peace to all their enemies (save Habsburgs). SPA and all non-protestant players loose control of both and cannot control them until the end of this event (whatever the religion of the owner of BOHEMIA), unless there is no-one else eligible to do so. SPA can never control them as long as this event is in effect.
2. If there is a Habsburg BOHEMIA, a rebellion occurs. Minor Bohemia is recreated with all such original provinces that are currently owned by Habsburgs. Withdraw all Habsburg units as per peace procedure. If Bohemia exists outside BOHEMIA, the provinces are annexed to it instead. Habsburgs declare automatically a war to Bohemia with a free CB. No allies can be called because of this declaration of war.
3. If after phase 1 and 2 there is a Bohemia, Palatinate forms a personal union with it. From now on the two minors are politically one for purposes of declarations of war (including the one by Habsburgs due to this event), diplomacy, peace making and so on. Both minors maintain separate economies and military units. During the first turn of this event (only) their units can freely be raised inside the territory of either. The diplomatic marker of Bohemia is permanently under the marker of Palatinate.
4. If Bohemia does not exist after phases 1 and 2, Palatinate makes a normal alliance with whoever HRE minor that owns BOHEMIA, and the control markers are left where they are.
5. If Palatinate and its ally (whether Bohemia or some other HRE minor) is neutral at this point, it is controlled by HOL in MA.
6. The union can be broken later in the game by scoring an enforced unconditional defeat against either of the two (an exception to the ruling above) and by claiming its termination as the sole victory condition.
7. Bavaria offers an immediate white peace to all its enemies. If it remains at war with SPA it does not take any further part in this event. In all other cases it allies with Habsburgs and declares war to its enemies by this event. No allies can be called because of the declaration of war by the Bavaria.

ADMINISTRATION PHASE:
1. Bavaria is automatically provided with a leader ? unless there is a named Bavarian leader active.
2. Bavaria and Palatinate do not receive reinforcements this turn unless activated also in other wars.

PEACE PHASE:
1. If Bohemia exists, it can be dissolved during the peace phase of any turn until the end of the event by enforced unconditional surrender. It is then removed from play and all its provinces are ceded to Habsburgs.
2. At the end of the current peace phase after all other peaces are solved this event ends permanently unless one of three conditions are met with:
    a. SPA wishes it to continue and states so.
    b. SPA or one the controllers of Palatinate/owner of BOHEMIA immediately declares war to each other. In order to do so they must first secretly write down their decision and reveal it at the same time. They all benefit from Free CB for this special declaration of war and allies can be immediately called to take part in it. Wars declared at this phase are counted to begin during the next turn for the purposes of determining how long the war has lasted.
    c. Roll D10: With a result of 1 or less the war continues. Apply the following modifiers:
        +3 if all the territories of the owner of BOHEMIA are conquered by Habsburgs
        +2 if BOHEMIA has been conquered by Habsburgs
        -1 per major victory achieved by Palatinate/owner of BOHEMIA
        -1 per round BOHEMIA has not been conquered by Habsburgs
        -1 if Bavarian units have been used outside home territory
3. If the event ends all participants make a white peace with each other and the owner of BOHEMIA cedes all original Bohemian territories to Habsburgs (which might cause it to be dissolved and removed from play).
4. If the event does not end, it last automatically for another five turns.

SECOND TURN:

EVENTS PHASE:
1. All HRE minors not already involved in the event offer a white peace to their enemies.
2. From now on until the end of the event Palatinate and Bohemia/the owner of BOHEMIA form a protestant Alliance. They are in full military co-operation with each other and all declaration of wars against any member of this Alliance results in an automatic war against all members. The member states can still be forced to make separate peaces, but only by achieving enforced unconditional surrender in which case they are considered also to have permanently left the Alliance.
3. SPA and all non-protestant players immediately loose the control of all Alliance members and cannot control them until the end of this event, unless there is no-one else eligible to do so. SPA can never control them. They can still be controlled by different players in which case they are moved during the movement phase of the last player as per normal alliance rules. Their current controllers cannot loose their control as long as this event lasts.
4. From now on and until the end of the event Bavaria and Habsburgs form a catholic League. They are regarded to have the same benefits as defined for the Alliance in 3 above. All members of the League are always automatically placed in EG of SPA and cannot be lowered from this position as long as this event lasts.
5. From now on and until the end of the war, it is being conducted between League and Alliance and their respective allies.

DIPLOMACY PHASE:
1. FRA and HOL receive a Free CB to join the war as an ally of the Alliance for the duration of the event.
2. SPA receives a Free CB to join the war as an ally of the League for the duration of the event.
3. Each HRE minor (active or inactive) not already involved in this event is tested separately by rolling D10.
    1-8 = The minor is incorporated to the Alliance (if protestant) or League (if catholic). It offers a white peace to all its current enemies and declares war to the opposing alliance. If its enemies do not accept a peace, they are considered to have declared a war to the whole Alliance/Leagues. The minors controller is chosen as per the event description above (1st turn; Events Phase 3).
    9-10 = The minor remains neutral, but allows passage and supply to both the League and the Alliance and the allies of both. Since no-one is ever allowed to enter its fortresses, it does not provide a base for retreats and similar purposes.
4. Denmark (even if active elsehwere) declares war in the side of the Alliance, but is not incorporated to the Alliance itself. The control of Denmark is determined according normal rules, but it cannot be SPA, which can never control it during this event. If the Union of Kalmar (rule 53.3) has not yet been dismantled, Sweden also joins the war already this turn following exactly the same procedure Denmark, but without ever benefiting from the special advantages listed in the third turn below.
5. Allies cannot be called as a response to the declarations of war either by HRE minors or Denmark as described above in 3 and 4.
6. From now on HRE minors cannot be invitated to join any other war except the one caused by this event and as a member of either Alliance or League (religion has no impact on the choise in such a case). Normal rules for calling minor allies are used and thus the personal participation in the war by the calling player country is necessary.

ADMINISTRATION PHASE: (applies also to the later turns of this event)
1. From now on all three mercenary generals are available for the duration of the event.
2. Any HRE minor activated in its respective alliances as per 3 above (but not those activated already earlier) can receive reinforcements only in defensive for this turn, but can choose its attitude freely thereafter.
3. The rule for allowing a player to draw reinforcements for only two minor allies per turn is projected to the members of the Alliance and the League. The controllers of the Alliance must agree on which are to receive reinforcements. Any controversial reinforcements are lost.
4. Denmark receives reinforcements in offensive for the duration of the event and without limiting its controller in drawing reinforcements for its other minor allies.

PEACE PHASE: (applies also to the later turns of this event)
1. The members of the Alliance and League, and also Denmark and Sweden (when activated) cannot make separate peace in the war caused by this event unless by enforced unconditional surrender. If Bohemia minor exists and suffers an enforced unconditional surrender, it is immediately annexed by the Habsburgs.
2. All members of Alliance or League that make enforced unconditional surrender become immediately neutral as defined in Diplomacy Phase 3 above and cannot rejoin the war later except on the side of their vanquisher.
3. If Alliance or League are left without any members during any peace phase, they are permanently dissolved and the event ends immediately as defined below in the peace phase for turn 6.
 
THIRD TURN:

DIPLOMACY PHASE:
1. Sweden (even if activated elsewhere) declares war in the side of the Alliance, but is not incorporated to the Alliance itself. The control of Sweden is determined according normal rules, but it cannot be SPA, which can never control it during this event.

ADMINISTRATIVE PHASE:
1. Sweden automatically achieves the next technological advancement allowed without violating access dates. If none are available, this advantage is postponed until such advancement becomes possible, or until the event ends, whatever comes first.
2. Sweden receives reinforcements in offensive for the duration of the event and without limiting its controller in drawing reinforcements for its other minor allies.

MILITARY PHASE:
1. Until the end of this event all Swedish units (only) are considered as supplied in all HRE territory they occupy, but pillage marker is always placed in them when they depart whether they are friendly, enemy or neutral. Being constantly in supply does not meand they do not need a base for retreats.

SIXTH TURN:

PEACE PHASE:
1. After normal peace step, the Alliance and League make an enforced peace with each other.
2. All enemies of Alliance or League make a mandatory peace with them.
3. Sweden and Denmark make a mandatory peace with all the allies of League.
4. The determination whether League or Alliance has won the war is made according following conditions:
    Case I: League victory if all the following circumstances apply;
        a. Alliance has been dissolved.
        b. League has not been dissolved.
        c. Habsburg capital is not currently conquered by an enemy (including those caused by separate wars).
    Case II: Alliance victory in all other circumstances (even if Alliance no longer exists)
5. The permanent effects of the peace between Alliance and League are as follows:
    Case I:
        a. All HRE minors are removed from game and a new political entity called German Empire is created from their territories. This does not apply to Prussia if event V:4 (The Creation of the Kingdom of Prussia) has already occurred. Nor does it apply to Bohemia, if still in existence, which is directly, and permanently, annexed to Habsburgs.
        b. German Empire is regarded as a permanent vassal of Habsburgs. Any declaration of war against it results to automatic declaration of war against Habsburgs.
        c. The army of the Holy Roman Empire (HRE) as described in the annexes becomes the army of German empire. However, its basic force is increased to A+ and 1 Ldet and it is allowed in addition to the normal HRE unit markers to use all unit markers of all HRE minors removed to create German Empire. However, all named minor HRE leaders that are scheduled to appear, do so as leaders of the German Empire.
        d. The capital of German Empire is Frankfurt. All the other HRE capitals loose their meaning as capitals.
        e. All period content limits of Spanish, Habsburg and German empire armies is immediately increased by 10i and 2c for the duration of the game.
        f. Habsburgs and German Empire receive a permanent bonus of +4 to all die-rolls for reinforcements (no other modifiers are applied).
        g. German Empire receives a bonus income of 100d to fortify its towns during each administration phase it is engaged in a war. Upkeep for these and all the other German Empire fortresses is free.
All these effects can be permanently cancelled by any Christian player forcing an enforced unconditional surrender on Habsburgs and deliberately forfaiting all other peace claims, or if Habsburg minor is removed from game by complete annexation. In that case all HRE minors removed to form the empire are returned and share whatever of their former territories (as they had at the point of their removal) still belong to the empire.

    Case II:
        a. All provinces belonging to Alliance members forced to leave Alliance during the war, and all Alliance provinces conquered by League and allies at the end of the war provide 10 VPs for SPA.
        b. All provinces belonging to League members forced to leave League during the war, and all League provinces conquered by Alliance and allies at the end of the war provide 5 VPs for all controllers of the Alliance members.
        c. If Sweden has not been forced out of the war, it receives HRE member owned BREMEN, KIEL and WEST POMMERN. The controller of Sweden receives VPs for these provinces as if annexed to itself.
        d. If Denmark has not been forced out of the war, it receives HRE member owned MECKLENBURG. The controller of Denmark receives VPs for these provinces as if annexed to itself.
        e. If Prussia took part in Alliance and was not forced out of the war, it receives HRE member owned OST POMMERN.
        f. All other conquered HRE territory is returned to previous owners.
6. Alliance and League are dissolved.
7. All other wars caused by this event are ended through normal peace procedure and can continue even after the event has been terminated.
 

2: THE TIME OF TROUBLES IN RUSSIA / COSSACK REVOLT (2) (historical date: 1605-1613 / 1654-1667)
(duration: until all revolts caused by the event are suppressed / until the end of the all wars caused by the event)

FIRST EVENT:

1. If RUS is currently at war when this event occurs, the event is delayed and its effects are not taken into account for the time being. At the end of any following declarations of war step when RUS is at peace roll one D10. With a roll of 5 or less the event is triggered. Until the civil war occurs RUS cannot make any declarations of war and must always offer white peace (or worse) to all its enemies.
2. If this event is rolled for a second time before the first event has ended, re-roll and do not mark off.

EVENTS PHASE:
1. Roll 6 revolts placements in RUS revolt table. Results outside current RUS territory are not applied, but no re-roll is made for them. Revolt strength is rolled normally, but all revolts are automatically controlled by ENG.
2. The controller of the revolt places a rebel A+ (using RUS content) anywhere in revolted areas.

DIPLOMATIC PHASE:
1. As long as the event lasts RUS can during any negotiations step cede to Sweden one province taken in priority; 1. Among those originally Swedish; 2. Russian NEWA; 3. any other province bordering Sweden. As a compensation for this Sweden, unless engaged in another war as an active ally of a player country, is placed in EG of RUS nothwithstanding its current position and stays there as long as this event lasts. Furthermore, as long as this condition applies Sweden offers to help RUS within the limits defined in rule 53.40.A. and can draw reinforcements in offensive for this purpose.
2. If RUS cedes a province to Sweden as defined above, it receives a free CB against Sweden during the first turn after this event has ended.
3. From the second turn on Poland (even if already active) can be activated as an ally of the rebels on a D10 die-roll of 10+. Modify the roll as follows:
    a. +1 for each full turn the event has already lasted.
    b. +1 for each revolt- inside RUS.
    c. +2 for each revolt+ inside RUS.
    d. +3 if Dimitri is an active rebel.
4. If Poland activates as an ally of the rebels, RUS looses the control of Poland. Poland can send help to the rebels within the restrictions defined in 53.40.A. and can draw reinforcements in offensive for this purpose.
5. As an ally of the rebels Poland claims one RUS province bordering Poland of its choise, in priority among former Polish provinces, if the event ends in rebel victory.
6. If war is declared to RUS, the rebels immediately offer a cease fire. If it is accepted the rebellion becomes inactive. Neither the aggressor or the government troops are allowed to invade any rebel owned or occupied territory during the war. Rebel units cannot be moved. Revolts cannot be suppressed, and they do not extend (no loss of Stab during the peace phase). After peace is resumed, the civil war continues at the beginning of the following turn.
7. If Sweden looses a war against any enemy while helping RUS in crushing the rebellion, its troops inside RUS territory are immediately withdrawn and the permanence of Swedish diplomatic position is cancelled.

ADMINISTRATION PHASE:
1. Rebels roll for reinforcements in offensive status as long as the event lasts. They succeed automatically in their roll for a leader, but only as long as they do not already have an active leader. For leader counter, use in priority Russian leader Dimitri, if in play.

MILITARY PHASE:
1. All rebel units can use revolt counters as supply bases in the same way as fortressess as long as there are no non-defeated enemy units present at the moment supply is needed.

PEACE PHASE:
1. The event ends in governement victory when both the following conditions are met with:
    a. all revolt markers are eliminated.
    b. Russian units have scored a major victory against the rebels, OR all rebels units are eliminated and their fortresses conquered.
2. The event ends in rebel victory if revolt markers exist at this point in half of all RUS national provinces. In that case RUS monarch is killed and the next monarch suffers automatically from a dynastic crisis, a loss of -3 Stab and a bankcruptcy during the events phase of the following turn.

INTERPHASE:
1. At the end of this phase, and if the event is still in effect, the revolt renews itself by rolling 6 new revolts as above in Events Phase 1.
2. ENG receives +5VPs at the end of every turn the event still survives as an active revolt and a bonus of +20VPs if the rebels win.

SECOND EVENT:

TURN 1

EVENTS PHASE:
1. Provinces UKRAINYA, VOLHYNIA and DONETSK form a new minor state Cossacks (Ukrainya) notwithstanding the current owner of these provinces. See ES1 for Cossacks statistics (orthodox, no diplomacy, no capital, orthodox tecnology, 2 Ldet (10c) basic force, no additional counters, owns the provinces above). Remove all non-Cossack units from these provinces as per normal peace rules.
2. The new minor is placed permanently in VA of RUS until RUS declines during any later turn to come to its aid in a war, or itself declares war to it in which case it immediately becomes a permanent VA of TUR with same conditions, and after that a permanent VA of Poland (as if a player country) with same conditions (in that case all declarations of war against Cossacks is regarded as a declaration of war against Poland and the controller of active Poland can call on Cossacks to join its wars as per normal rules). If all other fails it becomse a neutral minor with no diplomacy allowed and with preferences given in ES1 (TUR,FRA,HOL,SPA,ENG,ROS).
3. If Poland has a common border with Cossacks and does not have it as VA, it declares a war to it even if already activated in another war. The controller of Cossacks looses the control of Poland, which is determined according normal preferences. Allies can immediately be called for this war.

DIPLOMACY PHASE:
1. All players that had to cede provinces to Cossacks receive a free CB against them for this turn only.
2. If the free CB above is used to declare war to Cossacks and the contoller of Cossacks refuses to declare a war to come to its aid, Cossacks are immediately removed to VA of Poland (as if a player country), which declares a war on their behalf even if already activated elsewhere.

ADMINISTRATION PHASE:
1. If any declaration of war is made against Poland (or if RUS respects the call of its vassal the Cossacks) during this or any later turn while this event lasts, Habsburgs can send troops to aid Poland as if in CE of Poland. The decision for this is made by SPA.
2. Cossacks receive the use of a rebel army for the duration of the event.

TURN 2

EVENTS PHASE:
1. If Poland declared war on Cossacks, Sweden declares a war to Poland, unless activated elsewhere. Swedish declaration of war provides RUS with a free CB against Sweden for this turn only even if RUS is itself at war with Poland. If Russia declares war against Sweden it can make a cease fire with Poland. A cease fire means that both sides retain for the time being under their possession (not ownership) enemy provinces they currently have under conquest, but they dismantle all sieges as per normal peace procedure. As long as the cease fire lasts they are restricted in their moves as if in peace with each other. The situation concerning PD and Stability Loss are temporarily frozen and no levels are lost due to this war. The cease fire lasts until repealed by RUS during any war declarations phase after the one in which cease fire was made.
2. If Russia declares a war on Sweden, also Denmark declares war on Sweden, unless already activated in another war.
3. Allies can be called to these wars as per normal rules.

REINFORCEMENT PHASE
1. During the war Sweden receives reinforcements in offensive status. Furthermore, if RUS is in war with it, it receives a double set of reinforcements in defensive status and can follow the movement requirements of either status as its controller wishes.

PEACE PHASE:
1. As cossacks have no capital, they can be eliminated by complete conquest of their territory (this applies also after the current event no longer is in effect).
2. After two turns, and if still being waged only between minors the war ends with Poland eliminating Cossacks and annexing its territories. If Sweden has joined the war, it annexes Polish DANZIG.
3. If players have been involved in this war, peace is made according normal procedure without any time restrictions. However, allies of Poland (direct or in the same coalition) cannot claim any Cossack provinces unless in order to give them to Poland.
4. Unless this event led to no wars, or wars were conducted solely between minors, apply the following VP bonuses/maluses at the end of the event:
    a. The controller of Poland looses 5 VPs for every province lost by Poland during the war. These losses include all Polish provinces ceded to Cossacks when they were created by this event.
    b. If Cossacks are completely reannexed to Poland, the controller of Poland receives 30 VPs.
    c. The controller of Sweden gains 10 VPs for every province annexed by Sweden during the war.
    d. RUS looses 10 VPs for every province Sweden annexes from Poland during the event.
 

3: WAR BETWEEN PERSIA AND TURKEY (1) (historical date: 1606-1639)
(duration: until the war ends)

1. Takes place only if Persia is inactive, removed from play or already at war with TUR. Otherwise re-roll and do not mark as played.

THE EVENT IF PERSIA IS INACTIVE:

If TUR does not own provinces that were originally Persian, it may refuse the event in two ways:
1. By losing 3 Stab and 150d.
2. By surrendering immediately to Persia with a 2 lvl peace and ceding a province bordering Persian territory.
In this case the event is marked off, but can renew later.

EVENTS PHASE:
1. Persia declares war against TUR.
2. TUR can immediately call allies as per normal rules.
3. If this leads to declarations of war against Persia, the controller of Persia may come to its help as per normal rules, and so on.
4. If Persia is neutral, it is played by SPA (which cannot then come to its aid).

ADMINISTRATION PHASE:
1. Persia receives reinforcements in offensive status for the duration of the event.

THE EVENT IF PERSIA IS ALREADY AT WAR WITH TURKEY:

EVENTS PHASE:
1. Iraq is annexed to Persia and removed from game.
2. If there is Turkish IRAQ, place there a revolt+ controlled by Persia.
3. If there is Persian IRAQ, add +1 to Persian roll for reinforcements this turn.

ADMINISTRATION PHASE:
1. If any of the conditions above are met with, Iraqi basic force is added to Persian forces until the end of the event.

THE EVENT IF PERSIA IS ALREADY REMOVED FROM PLAY:

1. Provinces PERSIS, MECMED and ORMUZ rebel forming a new Persian state with all its former statistics. These provinces are automatically ceded by their previous owner(s) and all units in them are removed as per normal rules for peace.
2. Persia declares automatically a war to the previous controller(s) of these provinces.
3. Then proceed as with inactive Persia above but only against the previous controller(s) of the three Persian provinces.
 

4: NATIONAL REVOLT OF PORTUGAL (*) (historical date: 1640-1668)
(duration: until the end of the current period, or wars caused by this event)

1. Occurs only if event III:7 (annexation of Portugal by Spain) is currently in effect. Otherwise treat as an ordinary Revolt (R) instead.

EVENTS PHASE:
1. All effects of event III:7 are cancelled and Portugal is returned to play as a minor country. Portugal receives the same provinces it had at the time of its annexation to SPA notwithstanding who currently owns such provinces. It also receives all Portuguese COL/TPs, missions, forts/fortresses, commercial fleets etc. that are currently in Spanish hands.
2. All non-portuguese troops inside its territories are removed as per normal peace phase.
3. All Portuguese troops are removed from the map.
4. Portugal is offered to EG of ENG, or if it declines to EG of FRA, or if it declines it remains neutral.

DIPLOMACY PHASE:
1. All players who are forced to cede provinces to Portugal by this event receive a temporary free CB to be used this turn.
2. SPA receives a free CB that lasts until the end of current period and can be used multiple times.

PEACE PHASE:
1. If SPA uses its free CB against Portugal and wins an enforced unconditional surrender over Portugal, it can return event III:7 in effect. All Portuguese possessions as they are now are reannexed to SPA as described in event III:7. However, Spanish bonus income does not restart at 300d, but at the level it was before current event cancelled it. Reannexation of Portugal as by III:7 is only possible in wars SPA started using its free CB.
2. If SPA does use its free CB against Portugal, but does not win an enforced unconditional surrender over it, the controller of Portugal receives 30 VPs when peace is made. This can occur several times.
 

5: EXTENSION OF THE MOGOL EMPIRE (2) (historical date: 1636)
(duration: permanent)

FIRST EVENT:

EVENTS PHASE:
1. Area MARATHI is annexed to Mogol Empire. Mogols declare war against all owners (or controllers by military conquest) of COL and/or forts/fortresses in this area.
2. The defender may call allies according normal rules.

MILITARY PHASE:
1. The Mogol A+/- and local militia must attack enemy COL/TPs in MARATHI during every round until completely victorious or annihilated as per normal rules.

SECOND EVENT:

EVENTS PHASE:
1. Area CARNATIC is annexed to Mogol Empire. Mogols declare war against all owners (or controllers by military conquest) of COL and/or forts/fortresses in this area.
2. The defender may call allies according normal rules.

MILITARY PHASE:
1. The Mogol A+/- and local militia must attack enemy COL/TPs in CARNATIC during every round until completely victorious or annihilated as per normal rules.
 

6: PERSONAL UNION BETWEEN ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND (historical date: 1603)
(duration: until event 8:VI occurs or the union is dismantled by event 7:IV)

Can occur only if Scotland is at peace with ENG. Otherwise mark off as played.

EVENTS PHASE:
1. Scotland becomes a permanent VA of ENG whatever its current situation.
2. If Scotland is currently at war, its opponent must immediately either accept a white peace with it, or declare war to ENG with a Free CB. Normal call for allies can be made for such a war at this point.
 

7: ENGLISH CIVIL WAR (historical date: 1642-1648)
(duration: until the end of the civil war)

1. If ENG is catholic/conciliatory nothing happens and the event is marked off.
2. If ENG is catholic/counter-reform 3 revolts are rolled in revolt table for England and the event is marked off.
3. If ENG is protestant the following rules are taken into effect:

CIVIL WAR:
1. If ENG is currently at war when this event occurs, the event is delayed and its effects are not taken into account for the time being. At the end of any following declarations of war step when ENG is at peace roll one D10. With a roll of 5 or less the event is triggered. Until the civil war occurs ENG cannot make any declarations of war and must always offer white peace (or worse) to all its enemies.
2. All political rules for civil wars (53.40) are applied to this event unless cancelled by the following event description.

EVENTS PHASE:
1. Civil war erupts in England and the country is divided into two spheres called Parliamentarists and Royalists. The former is played by the ENG player and the latter are the rebels who are controlled:
    a. By whoever is currently the Sole defender of the Catholic faith.
    b. By any catholic/counter-reform player in the following order: SPA, FRA, HOL.
    c. By any catholic country in the following order: SPA, FRA, VEN/HOL, POR.
    d. By RUS, or failing that TUR.
2. ENG looses one third (33%) of its current treasury, or if the treasury is 50d or less it looses all and suffers immediate bankcruptcy.
3. ENG land units (A+/- and Ldet) are halved between Royalists (rounded down) and Parliamentarists (rounded up). Royalist units must be placed in Royalist counters.
4. ENG naval units (F+/- and Ndet) loose one tenth (10%) of their current ships (round up). Two pirate+ are placed in CTZ England.
5. Three revolts are rolled in the revolt table for England. However, these cannot be controlled by the controller of the Royalists.
6. Royalists begin the rebellion by owning MIDLANDS and a number of adjoining provinces decided in the following manner: Roll D10 and divide the result by three (round up). The provinces are chosen by the controller of the Royalists, but they must border MIDLANDS.
7. Each side can replace all land units under its control within their territories. Naval units are replaced as per normal peace procedure if necessary.
8. All TP/COL:s, commercial fleets etc. remain in the control of ENG (unless in enemy occupied territory).
9. Current ENG monarch joins the Royalists and is replaced by Parlament-monarc. Parlament has values 5/8/8 and it is immortal during the civil war (no survival roll).

DIPLOMACY PHASE:
1. As long as the civil war continues ENG cannot declare wars for any reason, nor can it move its units to any non-English European territory (including such cases as intervening other civil wars, help of the rebellious Portugal or POITOU etc.).
2. If war is declared to ENG, the Royalists immediately offer a cease fire. If it is accepted the rebellion becomes inactive. Neither the aggressor or the Parliamentarist is allowed to invade any rebel owned territory during the war. Revolts cannot be suppressed, and they do not extend (no loss of Stab during the peace phase). After peace is resumed, the civil war continues at the beginning of the following turn.

ADMINISTRATIVE PHASE:
1. Royalists receive automatically the Monarch counter (with its current military ratings) and leader Rupert, or, if he is not available, one of the current named English leaders chosen randomly (not Cromwell). If there are no such leaders, provide them with a minor general.
2. Royalists roll for reinforcements on the offensive status for the duration of the civil war. They receive no modifications for this roll during the first turn of the civil war, but after that they receive +1 for each two provinces they have under conquest (maximum +4).
3. Purchase limits for ENG land units are doubled during the duration of the civil war.
4. Leader Cromwell is permanently attached to this event. He appears at the same time with this event and remains in play, unless killed, for five turns (ignore the time limits in his counter).
5. From the second turn on, ENG can once (only) automatically receive the next eligible technology as soon as it becomes available provided that leader Cromwell is still in play. Move ENG technology counter to reflect this during the movement of technological markers. This advance is free, but expends the  normal technology attempt of ENG.
6. As long as ENG is governed by Parliament/Cromwell it receives a bonus of +3 to all administrative actions except Exceptional Taxes.

PEACE PHASE:
1. The civil war lasts until either party achieves both following conditions:
    a. Conquest of ANGLIA and five other English national provinces with three ports.
    b. Elimination of all enemy armies, or at least two major victories over them.
2. If Royalists win ENG looses 2 Stab and becomes catholic/counter-reform for the rest of the game loosing all protestant advantages.
3. If Parliamentarists win ENG becomes a protestant republic. If leader Cromwell remains in play, he becomes the monarch with values 8/8/9 and a reign lasting until the removal of the leader counter. Otherwise the Parliament continues to rule for three more turns. After the death of Cromwell or the end of Parliament, monarchy is restored and a dynastic crises occurs. However, ENG remains Protestant.

AN EXTENSION TO THE EVENT:

WAR WITH SCOTLAND: (historical date: 1638-51)
(duration: for the duration of the war between England and Scotland)

1. If event 6:IV is currently in effect and the civil war occurs, the following is added to the above description of the civil war as an independent extension.

EVENTS PHASE:
1. Scotland declares war against ENG and becomes neutral. Scotland is controlled by FRA, but no allies can ever take part in this war. This declaration of war does not trigger a truce in the civil war as per normal rules.

ADMINISTRATION PHASE:
1. Scotland can roll for reinforcements in either defensive or offensive status.

MILITARY PHASE:
1. Scottish units may ally fight either Royalists or Parliamentarists, but such alliance must be stated during the negotiations step of each turn and lasts only one turn, after which the controller of Scotland is again free to ally with either side.

PEACE PHASE:
1. If ENG (Parliamentarist/victorious Royalist) scores an enforced unconditional victory over Scotland during the war begun by this event, Scotland is restored to permanent VA of ENG as per 6:IV above. In all other cases, it reverts to normal minor and event 8:VI can never occur.
 

8: CREATION OF THE LONDON STOCK EXCHANGE (historical date: 1554)
(duration: permanent)

ADMINISTRATION PHASE:
1. From now on ENG receives a bonus equal to its DTI to all die-rolls on loan amount and interest (not length) in the loans table.
 

9: ACT OF NAVIGATION (historical date: 1651)
(duration: until English defeat in a war caused by this event, or by event V:12)

1. Can occur only if ENG is currently protestant. Otherwise re-roll.
2. Can occur only if event IV:7 (English civil war) has already occurred (not necessarily ended). Otherwise re-roll.

EVENTS PHASE:
1. All non-English commercial fleet counters in CTZ England are eliminated and ENG receives 2 commercial fleet levels in CTZ England (if eligible). All players that loose their counters as a result of this, receive a CB against England until the end of current period.
2. From now on, only ENG can place commercial fleet levels in CTZ England.

PEACE PHASE:
1. If the CB against ENG received through this event has been used by a player, and if such a player wins at least a level 4 victory against ENG, he may renounce the effects of this event instead of any other peace conditions (all his allies must agree with this as per normal peace procedure).
2. In such a case all non-English commercial fleet levels in CTZ England lost due to this event are returned and ENG commercial fleet in CTZ England is reduced to 1 whatever its current level.
 

10: CLOSURE OF JAPAN (historical date: 1638)
(duration: permanent)

EVENTS PHASE:
1. From now on there can be only a single TP counter in Japan. If there currently are more than one, proceed as follows.
2. First, all players and minors reduce their current TP counters to one.
3. If there are still more than one TP counter in Japan, remove all minor TPs excepting those of SPA annexed Portugal, which can remain.
4. If there are still more than one TP counter in Japan, the owners of the remaining counters (including also SPA for the counters of annexed Portugal) make a secret bidding. The largest bidder wins, and all other TPs are removed from Japan. All bids are lost.

ADMINISTRATION PHASE:
1. From now on, the single TP in Japan always provides an income of 10d notwithstanding its current level. Income from exotic resources is added to this as per normal rules.
 

11: UNREST IN INDIA (*) (historical date: no definite date)
(duration: 1 turn)

EVENTS PHASE:
1. One area in INDIA with COL/TPs (player or minor), chosen at random, does not provide any income, permanent or exotic resource, for any COL/TPs this turn.
 

12: REBELLION OF LA ROCHELLE (historical date: 1628)
(duration: until the suppression of the revolt)

1. Cannot occur before period IV. Otherwise re-roll.
2. Cannot occur if the owner of POITOU is protestant. In that case mark off and consider as played.

EVENTS PHASE:
1. Place 2 revolt+ and a rebel/protestant Ldet in POITOU. Retreat all other units from this province as per normal peace rules.
2. The fortress in POITOU is controlled by the rebels and immediately upgraded to the highest level attainable by the owner of POITOU.
3. Place pirate+ in CTZ France.
4. The revolt is controlled by ENG, unless itself the owner of POITOU, in which case it is controlled by FRA.

ADMINISTRATION PHASE:
1. As long as the event lasts the owner of POITOU suffers a malus of 1 to any administrative operation made in ROTW map.

MILITARY PHASE:
1. The controller of the rebellion can aid the rebels against the owner of POITOU as per the rules for intervening in civil wars (rule 53.40). However, he is only allowed to move his units freely to POITOU, any invation of other territory of the owner of POITOU results in a loss of 1 Stab per a move of a stack to such a province.
2. If the owner of POITOU is FRA and the event IV:20 is currently in effect, consider any French siege of the fortress in POITOU to remove the port in that fortress for all game purposes as long as the siege and the conditions above apply.

REDEPLOYMENT PHASE:
1. During revolts extension step the owner of POITOU looses 1 Stab even if all revolts are suppressed if the fortress in POITOU is not conquered.

INTERPHASE:
1. During each victory points calculation step the controller of a still existing rebellion receives +5 VPs.
 

13: REVOLT IN CEYLON (historical date: no definite date)
(duration: until the suppression of the revolt)

Treat this event as no event and mark it off, if there are no TP/COL counters in area CEYLAN.

EVENTS PHASE:
1. Place a revolt- in the COL/TP in area CEYLAN. This revolt is treated as per normal rules, and it is not directly connected to the natives of CEYLAN, which can still activate by units trying to suppress it.
 

14: DUTCH COLONIAL DYNAMISM (historical date: no definite date)
(duration: 1 turn)

EVENTS PHASE:
1. HOL receives an additional commercial fleet level to any eligibe STZ zone in ROTW map (even if none existed before).

DIPLOMACY PHASE:
1. For this turn HOL receives a bonus of +1 to all diplomatic actions made in ROTW map.

ADMINISTRATION PHASE:
1. HOL receives an additional and free strong TP placement attempt.
2. For this turn HOL receives a bonus of +1 to all administrative actions made in ROTW map.
 

15: INDIAN WAR (historical date: no definite date)
(duration: 1 turn)

EVENTS PHASE:
1. Roll D10 once:
    a. If the result is even, Iroquois (area OHIO) declare a war to one COL/TP in a province adjacent to them (choose randomnly). It can invade only the province in question and return to peace at the end of the turn as per normal rules for native attacks.
    b. If the result is odd, natieves in a randomnly chosen COL of a player (not minor, but including annexed Portugal) in an unsubdued area in NORTH AMERICA or SOUTH AMERICA is activated and attacks this COL only. The attack terminates at the end of the turn as per normal rules for native attacks.
2. If the die-roll does not result in any attacks, do not re-roll, but simply consider the event as played.
 

16: FRONDE IN FRANCE (historical date: 1648-1653)
(duration: 1 turn)

1. If event IV:20 (Richelieu) is in effect at the moment this event is rolled, nothing happens and the event is marked off. If event IV:20 occurs later while this event lasts, apply them both.

DIPLOMACY PHASE:
1. During the negotiations step FRA must offer a peace based on current peace difference (always a white peace in case of minors) but not higher than white peace to all its current enemies.
2. All non-aligned minor enemies of FRA are prepared to accept a white peace offered by FRA (do not apply the results before phase 6).
3. All major enemies of FRA must either inform that they are prepared to accept a peace, or that they instead make a truce (see rules additions) with FRA (which FRA must in this case accept), or that they continue the war (do not apply the results before phase 6).
4. FRA cannot declare any wars as long as this event lasts. However, wars can be declared against it in normal manner.
5. If at the end of the diplomacy phase all current enemies of FRA have not accepted a peace or a truce with it, all the effects of this event are cancelled. None of the peace treaties or truces offered above are actually applied and no rebellion occurs. The event is over.
6. If at the end of the diplomacy phase FRA has a peace or a truce with all other players and minors, the results of all the peace treaties and truces agreed upon during this diplomacy phase are immediately applied and the rebellion occurs.
7. If the rebellion occurs, half of all existing French armies and Ldets in EUROPE rebel. The French player chooses first which stacks remain loyal to him, and when he has chosen up to half of the total cumulative counter value (A+ = 2xA- / A- = 2xLdet) of all French stacks in EUROPE, he stops and the rest of the French counters in EUROPE (if any) are converted to rebel counters (use protestant/rebel counters). During the rebellion no French units from ROTW can enter EUROPE. Choose also randomnly one of the currently existing French generals (named or non-named, but not monarch, nor a general not allowed to command in EUROPE) who joins the rebels.
8. The rebels are controlled by any currently inactive (i.e. truce) enemy of FRA. If none or several follow this list of preferences: SPA, ENG, HOL, AUT, RUS, TUR. Control can be waived as per normal rules.

ADMINISTRATION PHASE:
1. During the rebellion FRA receives no income from any of its provinces, but it  collects other income and can perform administration operations normally.
2. The rebels receive reinforcements in offensive. The maximum number of FRA/rebel A and Ldet counters available during this event is either the number of counters allowed as FRA basic forces this period, or the number of counters each side currently has on EUROPE, whichever is the higher for each (ROTW counters are not taken into account). No additional counters can later be placed on map by detaching SPs from existing counters, although it is allowed to first remove one counter by absorbing it and then use it elsewhere.

MILITARY PHASE:
1. Any player who has a truce with FRA during this event (as per 3 above or otherwise) can help either FRA or the Fronde as per rules 53.40 for civil wars (See below for modifications to this rule).During the rebellion all naval units remain in the control of FRA and are not affected in any way by the rebel units, even if rebels have conguered the ports naval units are stacked in.
2. The status of French/rebel provinces (not conquered by an inactive enemy), or provinces currently conquered by FRA is determined by their occupation by land units. Basically all provinces are friendly to both sides, but provinces that are currently occupied by the units of one side become friendly to that side alone. If units began the round stacked together they become friedly to the side that moves first. For purposes of this definition intercepting side is counted to arrive first to a province. If a province is later vacated by all units, it becomes friendly to both sides again.
3. The sole exception to this is the province with the capital of FRA, which remains under the control of FRA until conquered by the rebels by taking its fortress.
4. The foreign intervention rules 53.40 are modified for this event. All players can offer their support to either party despite any restrictions due to religion etc. The rebel acceptance of such a help is determined by their controller. As a further restriction to the rule, the interventionist units can move to FRA (in EUROPE only) only if accompanied by the units of their corresponding French allies in every French/rebel province (not conquered by an inactive enemy) they move to during their movement. Thus no more than one unit can intervene on each side as a part of a French/rebel stack.

PEACE PHASE:
1. The side that possesses the capital of FRA during the peace step has won the rebellion.
2. If the rebels win, the monarch (and his excellent ministers) dies and an automatic dynastic crisis occurs during the next turn. The controller of the rebellion receives +10 VPs.
3. In all cases, all French/rebel units and leaders become again government troops and the rebel units are replaced with French counters.
 

17: WAR BETWEEN SWEDEN AND DENMARK (historical date: 1643-1645)
(duration: until the end of the Swedish-Danish war)

1. Takes place even if both sides are already activated in other wars, including those begun by events.
2. This event terminates the Union of Kalmar (rule 53.3.), if it is still in effect.

EVENTS PHASE:
1. Sweden declares war against Denmark. These minors cannot be both controlled by the same player. If currently so controlled, the controller must immediately decide which one is returned to neutral status.
2. Denmark offers an immediate white peace to all its enemies. Minors in a war with Denmark due to event descriptions automatically accept this white peace.
3. Allies can be immediately called to take part in the war as per normal rules.

PEACE PHASE:
1. After one turn, and if still being waged only between two minors the war ends with Denmark ceding Danish VÄSTERGÖTALAND to Sweden and the event terminates.
2. If players have been involved in this war, peace is made according normal procedure without any time restrictions. However, provinces owned at the beginning of the war by either Sweden or Denmark cannot be ceded to anyone else than the other of these two.
 

18: PRUSSIAN ANNEXATION OF BERG (historical date: 1614)
(duration: permanent)

EVENTS PHASE:
1. The territories of Berg are annexed to Prussian and it is removed from the game.
2. Prussia declares war against the owner of BERG (if not Berg) unless the owner immediately cedes BERG to Prussia.
3. This event can take place even if German empire has been created as a result of event IV:1 and Prussia no longer exists. In such a case mark as played and apply immediately if Prussia later returns to the game.

MILITARY PHASE:
1. From now on Prussian units can freely cross all HRE territory following the same rules as the emperor.
 

19: WAR BETWEEN SWEDEN AND POLAND (historical date: 1621-1629)
(duration: until the end of the Swedish-Polish war)

1. Cannot occur unless Sweden is currently inactivate. Otherwise re-roll.

EVENTS PHASE:
1. Sweden declares war against Poland. These minors cannot be both controlled by the same player. If currently so controlled, the controller must immediately decide which one is returned to neutral status.
2. Poland offers an immediate white peace to all its enemies. Minors in a war with Poland due to event descriptions automatically accept this white peace.
3. Allies can be immediately called to take part in the war as per normal rules.

PEACE PHASE:
1. After two turns, and if still being waged only between two minors the war ends with a white peace and the event terminates.
2. If players have been involved in this war, peace is made according normal procedure without any time restrictions. However, if COURLANDE, LIVONIA or ESTONIA were owned at the beginning of the war by either Sweden or Poland cannot be ceded to anyone else than the other of these two.
 

20: RICHELIEU (historical date: 1624-1642)
(duration: as long as Richelieu remains the excellent minister)

1. FRA can refuse this event if it so wishes. In that case mark-off as played.

MONARCH SURVIVAL PHASE:
1. FRA can freely remove Richelieu from office at the end of any following monarch survival phase and the event terminates.

EVENTS PHASE:
1. FRA receives automatically an excellent minister with values 9/8/7. These minister values do not affect the current values of the monarch, but supercede them for a period determined with a roll of D10: The minister lasts a number of turns equal to the roll or 6 turns, whichever is less.
2. If FRA monarch dies while the this event is still in effect, use the minister values as a basis for rolling for the values of the new monarch. Otherwise the monarch returns with its original values when the minister dies and play continues normally.
3. FRA receives an additional commercial fleet level to any eligibe STZ or CTZ zone (even if none existed before).

ADMINISTRATION PHASE:
1. As long as this event lasts FRA receives a bonus of +2 to all external operations as well as the improvement of FTI.
 

21: OLIVARES (historical date: 1621-1643)
(duration: as long as Olivares remains the excellent minister)

1. SPA can refuse this event if it so wishes. In that case mark-off a played.

MONARCH SURVIVAL PHASE:
2. SPA can freely remove Olivares from office at the end of any following monarch survival phase and the event terminates.

EVENTS PHASE:
1. SPA receives automatically an excellent minister with values 8/9/7. These minister values do not affect the current values of the monarch, but supercede them for a period determined with a roll of D10: The minister lasts a number of turns equal to the roll or 6 turns, whichever is less.
2. If SPA monarch dies while the this event is still in effect, use the minister values as a basis for rolling for the values of the new monarch. Otherwise the monarch returns with its original values when the minister dies and play continues normally.
3. SPA receives an additional Art manufacture (if available) placed according normal rules and also an additional commercial fleet level placed in any eligible trade zone (even if it had no SPA commercial fleet counter before).