Period I (1492-1519)

After ”America” has been discovered and until event 1 (Treaty of Tordesillas) occurs, use the following modifiers for both dice each turn when rolling for events:
-1 If SPA is Catholic/counter-reform or event 8:I/13:II has not occurred for the second time.
-1 If new COL/TP counters were placed in ”America” last turn.
-1 If SPA or POR control Papacy.
These modifiers no longer apply during period II even if event 1:I has not occurred by then.
 

1: TREATY OF TORDESILLAS (historical date: 1494)
(duration: end of Period III, or until event 7:III, whichever comes first)

1. Re-roll and do not mark off if ”America” has not been discovered.
2. Both SPA and POR have to accept this event for it to take effect. Otherwise it is marked off, but can occur again.

EVENTS PHASE:
1. FRA and ENG receive a temporary CB for this turn against SPA and POR.
2. SPA and POR receive 50d.

LASTING EFFECTS:
1. From now on SPA cannot place markers in the following areas:
    a. ”Middle East”, ”Siberia”, or ”Asia” except LUZON.
    b. ”Africa”.
    c. BELEM, RECIFE, BAHIA and RIO in ”America”.
All such markers currently on map are immediately changed to equivalent POR markers or discarded if none available, POR does not want them, or the areas have not been found by POR.
2. From now on POR cannot place markers in the following areas:
    a. ”America” except AMAZONIA, BELEM, RECIFE, BAHIA and RIO.
All such markers currently on map are immediately changed to equivalent SPA markers or discarded if none available, SPA does not want them, or the areas have not been found by SPA.
3. Until the end of period II all COL/TP placement attempts (successful or not) by Catholic players (all players except TUR begin the game as Catholics) other than SPA or POR entail the loss of 1 Stab and the control of Papacy.
4. As long as this event lasts, the movement of SPA units to the following areas is restricted:
    a. All areas in ”Africa”.
    b. All areas in ”Middle East”, ”Siberia”, and ”Asia” except LUZON.
    c. All sea zones bordering continental areas (excluding isles) of ”Asia” or ”Africa” except CAPE OF GOOD HOPE and CAPE OF STORMS.
    d. Areas BELEM, RECIFE, BAHIA and RIO in ”America”.
For each stack of SPA violating this restriction SPA shall loose 1 Stab per restricted area or sea zone entered.
5. As long as this event lasts, the movement of POR units to the following areas is restricted:
    a. All areas in ”America” except AMAZONIA, BELEM, RECIFE, BAHIA and RIO.
    b. All sea zones bordering areas of ”America” (including isles) except those bordering AMAZONIA, BELEM, RECIFE, BAHIA and RIO and sea zones CAPE HORN and COAST OF CHILE.
For each stack of POR violating this restriction POR shall loose 1 Stab per restricted area or sea zone entered.
All units of SPA or POR currently in prohibited zones must immediately return home as per normal peace procedure.
6. Until the end of period II all Catholic players save POR and SPA that move units into ROTW (not vice-versa) lose 1 Stab for each stack so moved and the control of Papacy.
7. Until the end of period II POR and SPA can attack all units or markers of other players or minors found in their respective zones, both land and sea, as defined above and including the units and markers of each other.
8. Such units can only defend themselves if attacked (unless war has been declared). However, note that moving a stack into an ROTW area (not sea zone) with unfriendly units always constitutes an attack.
9. All units and markers attacked can only be destroyed (COL are handled in the same way as TP in normal rules), not converted.
 

2: ELECTION OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR (historical date: 1519)
(duration: until the death or conversion to Protestantism of the elected emperor)

EVENTS PHASE:
1. Election is conducted between the monarchs of SPA, FRA and ENG unless they have chosen to become Protestant in which case they cannot participate. Each makes a secret bid of ducats for the title and the highest bid wins. In case of a draw, those included in it must make another secret bid to add to their offer. All bids are lost. If there are no bids, or no-one is eligible for candidacy, the event is cancelled, but it is still marked off as played.
2. The house of Fugger provides SPA with a bonus of 50d for its bid and an additional 50d if the current Spanish king is Charles I.
3. The controller of the imperial electorates Saxony, Palatinate, Bohemia (if Bohemia is annexed to Habsburgs as per event 5:I the bonus is shifted to the controller of Habsburgs) and Cologne receives an additional 10d.
4. The winner receives 75d and 10 VP.

IMMEDIATE EFFECTS:
1. From now on the winner becomes emperor and takes from the Habsburgs the control of the Holy Roman Empire as defined in political rule 53.26.
2. If SPA wins it receives an additional benefit of being able to involve Habsburgs in all wars in which SPA is also involved (not vice versa) with a free CB.

THE END AND POSSIBLE RECURRENCE OF THE EVENT:
1. When the elected emperor dies or converts to Protestantism, the event terminates. However, it shall automatically be replayed during the next Events Phase if the previous emperor was not from SPA. This recurrence of the event can occur indefinitely. The election is conducted in the same way as in Events Phase above, with the exception that SPA no longer receives any monetary bonuses from the Fuggers.
2. When a Spanish emperor dies the event terminates permanently and no elections are held. The title of emperor reverts back to Habsburgs and all effects of the event are cancelled. Furthermore, Habsburg MILANO (or Milanese MILANO if it is a vassal of Habsburgs: see 7:I) is immediately annexed to SPA.
 

3: VENETO-TURKISH COMMERCIAL CONFLICT (no historical date)
(duration: until the end of the Turkish-Venetian war/permanent)

EVENTS PHASE:
1. VEN receives a temporary CB against TUR if there is a Turkish ALEXANDRIA or TUR is at war with Mamluks.

DIPLOMACY PHASE:
1. TUR can negate the CB granted to VEN during the negotiations step by transferring 50% (rounded up) of the income from Grand Orient trade centre (once obtained) permanently to VEN.

LATER TURNS:
2. If TUR accepts to transfer half of the Grand Orient centre to VEN, it can still denounce this decision during the negotiations step of any later turn. However, this provides VEN with a temporary free CB against TUR.
 

4: WARS IN ITALY (2) (historical date: 1494-1504/1510-14/1515-16)
(duration: until the end of a war caused by this event)

1. This event cannot occur if FRA is Protestant. In that case, mark the event off as played and treat the result as R or D instead.
2. Cannot occur for a second time if the first event is still in effect. In that case re-roll and do not mark as played.

FIRST EVENT:
(See also the variants Kingdom of Naples and The Burgundian Inheritance)

EVENTS PHASE:
1. FRA receives a temporary CB against the owner of NAPOLI that can be used during this or the following declarations of war step in order to activate this event. If FRA is already at war against the owner of NAPOLI, it can activate all the consequences of this event (including call for allies) by merely stating it wishes to do so during the current declarations of war step.
2. Once the war is over (or refused) FRA receives a CB against the owner of NAPOLI until the end of the current period.

DIPLOMACY PHASE:
1. As long as this event has not yet been activated FRA or the owner of NAPOLI (only if a major country) can refuse it during a negotiations step. For FRA this costs 2 Stab and for the owner of NAPOLI 3 Stab and the cession of NAPOLI to FRA. In either case, treat the event as played. If neither side has refused the (unactivated) event by the end of the second negotiations step, FRA must automatically activate it by declaring a war to the owner of NAPOLI. If it cannot do so due to the game rules or other events, it does not suffer any penalties for failing thus to comply.
2. FRA receives a bonus of +2 for its diplomacy on Toscana and a minus –1 for Papacy and Parma. This condition applies as long as this event lasts (including the period before war is declared).
3. If during a war caused by this event FRA ever conquers (not necessarily annexes) NAPOLI, it immediately receives a CB against TUR usable until the end of the current period. Furthermore, in any war (including a crusade) fought against TUR during this time FRA receives a special permission to annex THRACIA, although it is the capital of TUR, if normal peace conditions are otherwise met.

MOVEMENT PHASE:
1. Provinces owned by Savoia, Milano, Parma, Toscana and Papacy, which are also currently controlled by them provide free access and supply for FRA during the first turn after the declaration of war by this event unless the minors are themselves at war against FRA. This temporarily overrides normal minor alliance effects although diplomatic markers are not affected. Note that a hostile army besieging a fortress of these minors does blockade supply for FRA even if the besiegers are not itself at war against FRA.
2. If FRA invades an enemy owned (not just controlled) province outside Italy during the war, it forfeits the benefit of a CB and immediately looses 1 Stab and 10 VPs. After this loss the restrictions of this particular clause are lifted, but the other effects of the event description are not affected.
3. However, if the controller of NAPOLI or its allies invade a FRA owned province using a supply source outside Italy (naval supply included), the restrictions on FRA placed in 1 above are lifted without it forfeiting the CB.
4. If FRA (not allied) land units invade NAPOLI due to this event (and even if they fail to conquer it), apply immediately (even in the middle of a turn) the following permanent effects:
a. From now on the military units of FRA, SPA and Habsburgs/Austria/AUT have access to provinces owned and controlled by inactive Milan, Parma, Papacy, Savoia and Tuscany during each turn the former are themselves actively engaged in a war.
b. Only access to the provinces of the said minors is provided, not the use of their fortresses as supply bases or for any other purpose (this ruling does not, however, override the temporary French access to supply due to this event).
c. The rulings in a) and b) above never apply if there is a war between the said major powers (including Habsburgs/Austria) and the Italian minors, nor do they restrict the co-operation of active allies.

INTERPHASE:
1. If FRA (excluding allies) does not conquer, even temporarily, NAPOLI at any point during the war caused by this event it looses 10 VPs. If FRA annexes NAPOLI, it gains 10 VPs.

SECOND EVENT:

EVENTS PHASE:
1. FRA receives a compulsory CB against the owner of MILANO. This CB has to be used during the next two turns.
2. Once the war is over (or refused) FRA receives a CB against the owner of MILANO until the end of current period.

DIPLOMACY PHASE:
1. Before war is declared either FRA or the owner of MILANO (in case of Habsburgs or Milan treat as SPA) can refuse the event during negotiations step. For FRA this costs 2 Stab and for the controller of MILANO 3 Stab and the cession of MILANO to FRA (this can be done by SPA even for Habsburgs or Milan). In either case, treat the event as played and do not proceed any further with the event description. If neither side has refused the event by the end of the second negotiations step, FRA must automatically use its CB to declare a war to the owner of MILANO (unless it has already done so).
2. If the owner of MILANO is Milan, Habsburgs and SPA receive a free CB against FRA to be used at the moment the latter declares war to Milan. Milan is then considered as if in EG of Habsburgs for the duration of the war (unless already in VA of Habsburgs).
3. FRA receives a bonus of +2 for its diplomacy on Toscana and a minus –1 for Papacy and Parma. This condition applies as long as this event lasts (including the period before war is declared).

ADMINISTRATION PHASE:
1. If Milan is currently a vassal of Habsburgs (see event 7:I), Milan receives the help of inactive Switzerland as if it was in the CE of Milan but only to be used in MILANO. This condition overrides normal minor alliance effects although diplomatic markers are not affected. As long as there are Swiss mercenaries remaining Switzerland cannot be activated unless war is declared to it, in which case the effects of this event on Switzerland are cancelled, Swiss mercenaries are immediately disbanded and Switzerland can mobilise its normal forces for its defence.

MOVEMENT PHASE:
1. If FRA invades an enemy owned (not just controlled) province outside Italy during the war, it forfeits the benefit of a CB and immediately looses 1 Stab and 10 VPs. After this loss the restrictions of this particular clause are lifted, but the other effects of the event description are not affected.
2. However, if the controller of MILAN or its allies invade a FRA owned province using a supply source outside Italy (naval supply included), the restrictions on FRA placed in 1 above are lifted without it forfeiting the CB.
3. Savoia provides free access and supply for FRA and allies (only) during the first turn after the declaration of war unless it is itself at war with FRA. This temporarily overrides normal minor alliance effects although diplomatic marker of Savoia is not affected.

MILITARY PHASE:
1. Unless Milan is in VA of Habsburg (see event 7:I) FRA can annex Milanese MILANO (possibly eliminating Milan from play) at the moment it can besiege Milano (i.e. there are no non-besieged enemy units present). No roll is necessary for this (the Milanese surrender), but French (and not solely allied) troops must be involved.

INTERPHASE:
1. If MILANO is annexed to FRA due to this event, Savoia (unless itself at war against FRA) provides a permanent access through its territory, not supply, to any French and allied troops during war or peace. However, no French or allied units can actually stop their movement while inside Savoian territory. The same conditions apply also to all active enemies of FRA. This permanent access ceases if French MILANO is ever annexed by another power.
2. FRA gains an additional 10 VPs, if it annexes (not merely conquers) Milan at any point during the war.
3. After the war caused by this event ends, all remaining Milanese territories are annexed to Habsburgs and the minor is removed from play.
 

5: DECLARATION OF HUNGARIAN LIBERTY/ HABSBURG INHERITANCE OF BOHEMIA (2) (historical date: 1505/non historical)
(duration: 1 turn/permanent)

1. If event 6:I has not yet been rolled mark off, but do not consider as played (treat as R or D event instead).
2. If event 6:I has already been activated mark off and consider the event as played.

FIRST EVENT:

EVENTS PHASE:
1. Event 6:I is cancelled.

DIPLOMACY PHASE:
1. Habsburgs receives a temporary free CB against Hungary. If it is used, the controller of Habsburgs loses the control of Hungary.
2. Allies can be called to this war as per normal rules.

SECOND EVENT:

EVENTS PHASE:
1. Bohemia is removed from play and all its current provinces are annexed to Habsburgs.
2. If foreign units currently occupy/control Bohemian territory the invader has to immediately declare a white peace or declare war on the Habsburgs (with a free CB) followed immediately by normal call to allies.
 

6. HABSBURG INHERITANCE OF BOHEMIA-HUNGARY (historical date: 1491/not activated)
(duration: can be activated only after the beginning of period II)

1. This event is cancelled if event 5:I occurs or if Habsburgs declares war on Hungary or Bohemia after the event has been rolled, but before it is activated.
2. The event is only activated whenever after the beginning of period II Hungarian diplomatic marker is affected (even if actually neutral) by diplomatic upheaval (D) result until the end of the game.
3. This event does not affect Transylvania, if it has been created.

EVENTS PHASE:
1. Whenever this event is activated all current provinces of Hungary and Bohemia are immediately annexed to Habsburgs and these minors are removed from play.
2. If foreign units currently occupy/control Hungarian or Bohemian territory the invader has to immediately declare a war to the Habsburgs benefiting from a free CB or a white peace is considered to have been made between it and the former two minor powers.

ADMINISTRATION PHASE:
1. All Hungarian (not Bohemian) unit counters (leaders excluded) are considered to become Habsburg counters in all respects (including content).
2. The Basic forces (leaders excluded) of Hungary (not Bohemia) are permanently added to those of Habsburgs.
 

7. HABSBURG CONTROL OF MILANO (quasi-historical)
(duration: permanent)

EVENTS PHASE:
1. From now on Milan (if it still exists) is treated as if in a permanent VA status of Habsburgs. Habsburgs are automatically involved in any wars declared against Milan and can call Milan to join its own war as per rules for calling allies. Milan remains a vassal of Habsburgs until removed from play by annexation or by events 2:I or 3:VI.
2. If Milan is currently engaged in a war, Habsburgs receive a CB to join it.
3. If there is a French MILANO, revolt- is placed in the province and Habsburgs receive a free CB against FRA to be used during the following two turns.
 

8. REFORMATION (3) (historical date: 1522-60)
(duration: permanent)

FIRST EVENT:

EVENTS PHASE:
1. Denmark, Sweden, Berg, Bohemia, Switzerland (see annexes), Teutonic Order, Prussia, Hansa, Thuringen, Hessen, Saxony, Hannover, Wurttemburg (which can be forcibly permanently reconverted as an exception to the rule) and Transylvania (not Hungary) become Protestant.

SECOND EVENT:

EVENTS PHASE:
1. FRA, SPA and ENG must choose between Catholic/counter-reform, Catholic/conciliatorism or Protestantism. The choice is made simultaneously and secretly. It cannot be voluntarily changed later.

GENERAL CONSEQUENCES:
1. Protestantism:
    a. No Diplomacy (support included) with Papacy until the end of the current period. Control of Papacy is lost.
    b. 2 Stab are lost.
    c. 2 revolts are rolled in the player country (4 in case of SPA).
2. Catholic/conciliatorism:
    a. 1 Stab is lost.
    b. 1 revolt is rolled in the player country (2 in case of SPA)
    c. +2 bonus is received for diplomacy on all Protestant countries for as long as Protestantism/Catholicism affects minor diplomacy.
3. Catholic/counter-reform:
    a. If only one of the eligible players chooses counter-reform, he is permanent Sole Defender of Catholic Faith and receives 20 VPs.
    b. If more players choose counter-reform, the Sole Defender of Catholic Faith is determined according normal procedure but between them only.
    c. If none of the eligible players chooses counter-reform, all of them lose 1 additional Stab.

INDIVIDUAL CONSEQUENCES (cumulative with those above and effective only while the states retain their current religion):

FRANCE:
1. Protestantism:
    a. No diplomacy (support included) with Papacy until the end of period III.
    b. Events 4:I, 3:II, 11:III, 12:IV, 8:V, 9:V and 4:VI are modified.
    c. From the beginning of period II maximum period limits for DTI and FTI levels and for the number of manufactures, COL and TP are raised by one.
    d. COL/TP placement action limits has a minimum of 1 during periods I and II, and 2 after that.
    e. An explorer is received for one turn as per Economic event 41. Minimum Explorer limit for period III is raised to 1.
2. Catholic/conciliatorism:
    a. +1 bonus to Stab improvement attempts for this turn and the following two turns.
3. Catholic/Counter-reform:
    a. Events 11:III and 8:V are modified.

SPAIN:
1. Protestantism:
    a. Habsburgs becomes an ordinary neutral minor.
    b. The rule for Spanish Endogamy is cancelled.
    c. No diplomacy on Knights. MALTA cannot be ceded to it.
    d. No Restoration of Catholic Faith.
    e. No bonuses for making Holy Roman empire a vassal of Habsburgs.
    f. Events 1:I, 9:II, 7:III and 4:IV are cancelled and in their place there is a new event: WAR OF RELIGION IN SPAIN (see event 11:III).
    g. All political restrictions on COL/TP placement are cancelled.
    h. Maximum period limits for DTI and FTI (not colonial) levels and for the number of manufactures and COL are raised by 1.
    i. Number of TP placement actions is permanently raised to 2. The minimum number of available TPs is raised to 4.
    j. No CB is received for taking part in event 1:IV, nor are any bonus VPs gained for Habsburgs victory in it. Habsburgs is still played by SPA during that event.
2. Catholic/conciliatorism:
    a. A minus of –2 is received for Stab improvement during the current period and the following one.
3. Catholic/Counter-reform:
    a. A permanent bonus of +2 is received for diplomacy on Papacy.
    b. Bonuses for the Restoration of Catholicism become in effect.

ENGLAND:
1. Protestantism:
    a. Event 1:II is modified.
    b. The number of COL/TP placement attempts has a minimum of 1 until the end of period II and 2 after that.
    c. An explorer is received for one turn as per Economic event 41.
    d. The number of revolts is doubled each time when England is rolled in the revolts Country chart until the end of period III.
2. Catholic/conciliatorism:
    a. A bonus of +1 is received for Stab improvement during the current period and the following two.
3. Catholic/Counter-reform:
    a. Event 1:II is modified.
    b. The number of COL placement attempts retains a maximum of 2 until period VI.
    c. The maximum number of available COL/TP counters is reduced by two during periods IV an V.

If the major powers are ever compelled to change their religion, the above conditions are immediately applied to them as if this event had occurred anew.

THIRD EVENT:

EVENTS PHASE:
1. Scotland and Palatinate become Protestant.
 

9: TURKISH DIPLOMATIC PRESSURE (*) (no historical date)
(duration: permanent)

DIPLOMACY PHASE:
1. TUR receives a bonus of +3 for a Muslim minor of its choice. Choice has to be made secretly during the negotiations step.
 

10: WAR WITH SCOTLAND (historical date: 1513-14)
(duration: until the end of the Anglo-Scottish war)

1. Occurs only if Scotland is at present inactive. Otherwise re-roll.
2. ENG can refuse this event (mark as played) by loosing 3 Stab and 20 VPs. It also loses the control of Scotland and can then make no diplomacy on it until the end of period.

EVENTS PHASE:
1. Scotland declares war against ENG, which looses the control of Scotland.
2. Allies can be called for this war as per normal rules.
3. Control of Scotland is decided according the following procedure:
    a. Any current enemy of ENG (follow the normal preferences to decide which).
    b. The current controller of Scotland (if an ally of ENG it must either break this alliance or refuse Scotland loosing the usual 1 Stab).
    c. Any non-ally of ENG (follow preferences).
    d. Any ally of ENG, which must break its alliance of refuse Scotland loosing the usual 1 Stab.

ADMINISTRATION PHASE:
1. For the duration of the event Scotland receives reinforcements in offensive attitude.